February 2 0 , 2017:
Recent geological and paleontological exploration in the Indus basin of Pakistan allowed the discoveries of numerous remains of non-marine reptiles (titanosaurian sauropod, abelisaurian and noasaurian theropod dinosaurs), and marine reptiles (crocodiles), flying reptiles (pterosaurs), marine and non-marine mammals, fishes, invertebrates, and plants, especially Pakistan is relatively rich in footprints/trackways in the Mesozoic. These vertebrates of Indo-Pakistan are very significant for paleobiogeographic study due to the present-day connection of this continent with Asia in Northern Hemisphere, whereas during past (Jurassic and pre-Jurassic) it was connected to the Gondwana. The Mesozoic vertebrates show close affinities with Gondwanan landmasses. The Cenozoic vertebrates show Eurasian affinity and migrated from Indo-Pak subcontinent to Eurasia or vice versa via Paleo Indus River systems along Western Indus Suture, after long journey of about 6 000 km the first collision of Indo-Pak subcontinent with Asia occurred at terminal Cretaceous.
M. Sadiq Malkani;SUN Ge (2016)
Fossil biotas from Pakistan with focus on dinosaur distributions and discussion on paleobiogeographic evolution of Indo-Pak Peninsula.
Global Geology 19(4): 230-240